What is database in computer ? Database management system

Published on 29-Jun-2022

The importance of databases in web applications is immense. Any good application needs a database. There are many databases and usually, relational databases are used more. Some popular databases such as MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, PgSQL, etc. Data can be stored in a database and that information can be sorted by the query as needed.

The SQL lesson on Web coach BD will show you how to query a database. There are hundreds of functions and rules in SQL. These may be used to do sophisticated database queries. The data can be processed and the results shown by any mathematical procedure.

Now we will know, what is data and what is a database?

To look at it another way data can be facts about any object under investigation. Personal information is examples of data is your name, your age, height, weight, religion, nationality, etc. Data may also be any kind of image, any kind of picture, a file, a pdf, and so on.

A database is a collection of data that has been arranged in a structured manner. Allow for electronic data storage and management. The database management system is primarily in charge of a database.

The data, the database management system and the applications that go with them are referred to as a database system, which is commonly abbreviated to the just database.

What are databases and examples?

Tables for products, workers, and financial records, for example, may be included in a company database. Any one of these tables would have several fields that are relevant to the data it stores.

Types of Database:

  • Hierarchical databases:

The parent-child relationship is used to store data in the form of a Database Management System. It has a tree-like structure, with nodes corresponding to records and branches corresponding to fields.


  1. Information Management System 
  2. the RDM Mobile
  • Network databases:

Many-to-many relationships are supported by this database management system. It frequently leads to complicated database architecture.

Example of network database:

  1. Integrated Data Store (IDS) 
  2. IDMS (Integrated Database Management System) 
  3. Raima Database Manager.
  • Object-oriented databases:

All data kinds can be stored in this sort of computer database. The information is saved in the form of objects. The properties and methods of the objects that will be stored in the database describe what should be done with the data. PostgreSQL is an exemplum of an object-oriented relational database management system.


  • Relational databases:

Tables are used to describe database relationships in this type of database. It's also known as Relational Database. In the sector, this is a popular database management system. MySQL, Oracle, and Microsoft SQL Server databases are the exemplum of Relational Database Management systems.

  • NoSQL databases:

For huge sets of dispersed data, a NoSQL database is utilized. There are a few big data performance issues that relational databases can successfully solve. This form of computer database is particularly useful for evaluating massive amounts of unstructured data.


  1. document databases
  2. key-value databases
  3. wide-column stores
  4. graph databases.
  • Distributed databases :

A distributed database is a sort of database that includes information recorded by local computers as well as contributions from the common database. The data in this sort of database system is dispersed among several companies rather than being stored in a single location.


  • Centralized database:

It's a centralized location where people from all walks of life can access data. A computer database stores application methods that allow users to access data from a remote location.

  • Open-source databases:

It is mostly utilized in marketing, employee relations, customer service, and database management. Information about operations was recorded in a database of this type.

  • Cloud databases:

A cloud database is one that has been particularly improved or developed for use in a cloud platform. There are numerous advantages to using a cloud database, including lower storage and bandwidth costs. It also has high flexibility and reliability on demand.

  • Data warehouses:

A data warehouse is a storage system for historical and commutative data in single or multiple sources. The Data Warehouse concept simplifies the reporting and methodical processes of the company.

  • Graph databases :

Graph theory is used to collect, map, and query relationships in a graph-oriented database. These computer databases are mostly used to examine linkages.

  • OLTP databases:

OLTP is a database type that can execute queries quickly while still ensuring data integrity in multi-access situations.

  • Personal database:

A personal database is a personal data store. The data is primarily used by the same corporate department and only a limited number of people have access to it. 

  • Multimodal database :

A multi-modal database is a sort of information processing system that offers various data models that describe how a database's knowledge and information should be organized and arranged.

  • Document/JSON database:

The data in a document-oriented database is stored in document collections, which are often in the XML, JSON, or BSON formats.


Database Components:

  • Hardware

This interface between computers and real-world systems is made up of a set of actual electrical equipment such as computers, Input or output devices, storage devices, and so on. The most crucial component of a database management system is to gather, store, process, and access data.

  • Software

A database software program is a piece of software that allows you to create, modify, and maintain database files and records. Users may save data in structured fields, tables, and columns using this sort of software.



Microsoft SQL Server

Postgre SQL


Amazon RDS

Oracle RDBMS

Razor SQL

SQL Developer

  • Data

Numerical and text values, as well as information, are included in data components. A data schema, which defines names for primitive numerical and text values that occur in data, how values are classified into vectors, as well as the functional interconnection among values, is the main method of metadata in the Math Type class.

  • Procedure

Database Procedures are subroutines that can contain one or many SQL statements to complete a task. These can be used to validate data, regulate access, or reduce network traffic between clients and Database servers.

  • Database Access Language

Apple Computer launched Data Access Language in 1990 as a SQL-like language and application programming interface to give the unified client or server access to database management systems. Butler SQL, which is now obsolete, was utilized as the SQL server's native SQL dialect.

The Elements of a Database:

The database schema

Schema objects



Fields and columns

Records and rows



History of Database Management System

 Charles Bachman creates the first database management system (DBMS) in 1960. Cod debuted IBM's Information Management System in 1970. (IMS). The Entity-Relationship Model, often known as the ER model, was coined and developed by Peter Chen in 1976.

The relational model is widely acknowledged as a database component in 1980.

Object-oriented database management systems emerge in 1985.

In 1990 – Object-orientation is included in relational databases.

MS Access, a personal database management system, is released in 1991, and it quickly replaces all existing personal database management systems.The first Internet database applications were released in 1995.

1997: XML is used to process databases. Many companies are beginning to integrate XML into their database management systems.

What is the importance of a database?

Databases are collections of organized data that can be accessed, maintained, and updated with simplicity. Database systems are critical to your company because they transmit data about sales transactions, product inventory, customer profiles, and marketing activities.

Benefits of a Database Management System (DBMS):

ü Reduced data redundancy.

ü Reduced updating errors and increased consistency.

ü Data integrity and independence from applications programs are improved.

ü Users' data access has been improved thanks to the usage of host and query languages.

ü Data security has been improved.

ü Costs of data entry, storage, and retrieval are reduced.

ü Simplicity Minimize data inconsistency Faster data access Better decision making.

Disadvantages of a database management system:

ü Database systems are tough, time-consuming, and complicated to develop.

ü Investing a significant amount of money in hardware and software to get started.

ü Damage to a database has ramifications for almost all software programs.

ü Expenses associated with migrating from a file-based to a database-based system.

ü The exorbitant price of software and hardware

ü Frequency Upgrade or Replacement Cycles Currency Maintenance


Summary :

 A database is a collection of data that has been organized systematically. Allow for electronic data storage and manipulation. Data administration is simplified thanks to databases.

 The term Database Management System mention to a database management system.

Database Management Systems are divided into four categories: hierarchical, network, relational, and object-oriented.

The relational model, which maintains data in table forms, is the most frequently used database management system. It employs SQL as the query language of choice.

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 Tag  # Database management system, Database in computers, Database types, Database software

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