Computer Network Architecture | Network Top-down Approach

Published on 29-Jun-2022

Computer network architecture

Computer network architecture is the physical and logical design of the software, hardware, protocols, and data transfer medium. It refers to how computers are organized and duties are given to them.

Types of network architectures:

Peer-To-Peer network

Client/Server network

Peer-To-Peer network

A peer-to-peer network is one in which all computers are connected and have the same privileges and obligations for data processing.

Peer-to-peer networks are ideal for small groups of up to ten machines.

In a peer-to-peer network, there is no dedicated server.

Each system is given unique access privileges to share data, but this can cause problems if the resource's computer is unavailable.

Advantages of Peer-To-Peer Network

It is not much expensive because it does not include a dedicated server.

If one of the computers fails, the others will continue to work.

Because each computer works independently, it's simple to set up and maintain.

Disadvantages of Peer-To-Peer Network

A Peer-to-Peer network does not have a centralized structure. So, it can't back up data because it's different in different places.

It has a security flaw because the device is self-managed.

Client/Server Network

A server network is a network structure that allows end-users, or clients, to access resources from a central computer or server, such as songs, films, and other material.

All other computers in the network are referred to as clients, while the central controller is a server.

All primary functions, such as security and network management, are performed by a server.

A server is some of all resources, including files, directories, printers, and so on.

All of the clients are connected by a server, which allows them to communicate with one another. For example, if client 1 wishes to communicate some data to client 2, it must first obtain permission from the server. The server sends the response to client 1 in the form of an email.

Advantages of Client/Server network

The centralized system is housed in a Client/Server network. In this system, we can easily back up the data.

A dedicated server in a Client/Server network improves the overall performance of the system.

Because a single server manages the shared resources in a Client/Server network, security is improved.

It also accelerates the distribution of resources.

Disadvantages of Client/Server network

A client/server network is expensive since it requires a server with a large amount of memory.

A server uses a network operating system (NOS) to give resources to clients, although the cost of NOS is relatively expensive.

To administer all of the resources, you'll need a specialized network administrator.

Computer network top-down approach

There are two techniques to teach computer communication networks: top-down and bottom-up. Computer science educators have favored one throughout time, while electrical engineering instructors have favored the other.

There are a variety of causes for this preference, but one of the most crucial is how the instructor was initially taught and exposed to the subject. There has been little research on whether the strategy is more beneficial to pupils in content comprehension and demonstration of concepts. Here we discuss a top-down approach.

While some data-communication protocols receive the most attention, they all share a lot of characteristics. The Internet Explained: A Top-Down Approach to Computer Networking outlines the engineering challenges of transmitting digital data from point to point.

As stated in the subtitle, the book's top-down strategy indicates that it begins at the top of the protocol stack, at the application layer, and works its way down through the remaining layers until it reaches bare wire.

The authors prefer their five-layer (application, transport, network, link, and physical) model to the well-known seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocol stack. It's a waste of time. It's a good strategy for getting rid of some hand-waving that's generally associated with the OSI model's more obtuse layers. The method is theoretical—don't expect to learn how to configure Windows 2000 or a Cisco router here—but it's practical.

It should help anyone who works as a programmer, system architect, or administrator who needs to understand networking. The treatment of the network layer, which is where routing takes place, typifies the overall approach.

When discussing routing, authors James Kurose and Keith Ross clarify what routing protocols must achieve (using a lot of explicit, definition-heavy text): determine the most efficient path to a specific location.

Then they go over the math that determines the best approach, show some code that implements those methods, and use fantastic conceptual pictures to demonstrate the idea. Real-world implementations of the algorithms, such as the Internet Protocol (IPv4 and IPv6) and various prominent IP routing protocols, assist you in moving from pure theory to networking technology.

David Wall's quote The idea of data networks is discussed, and a detailed treatment of the issues that arise at each level (the application layer gets plenty of attention).

Academic treatment of networking problems and solutions is provided for each tier, followed by a discussion of real-world technologies. Network security and digital multimedia transmission are covered in separate sections.

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