Neuron : Structure, Function, Diagram and Types

Published on 09-Oct-2022


Neurons are one of the essential parts of the brain and nervous system, without which transporting important information isn't possible. The sensory neuron, motor neuron, relay neuron, etc. help transport information using electrical impulses and chemical signals.

Each of them has different roles in the nervous system. Some neurons transfer important information from the brain to the spinal cord, and some do the opposite. Some neurons are responsible for us to react immediately as we face any sudden situation.

For example, a very hot object coming in contact with our skin or a keen, sharp object coming closer. We react immediately without thinking, known as the 'Reflex action.' It is the only action that is done with our spinal cord's help. Our brain isn't involved in the reflex action because it is so fast that even our brain cannot work as fast as it acts to sudden occurrences or accidents. 

Neuron structure

 Description of the neuron structure:

Neurons have dendrites, an axon, and a cell body in their structures, and these are the main parts without which a neuron is incomplete. Dendrites look like the branches of trees or the roots. The cell membrane of the neuron keeps the structure together.

The axon is a very important part of a neuron. Some neuron contains a nucleus (which controls the entire neuron.) The cell body contains a substance known as cytoplasm, where all a neuron's chemical reactions and activities are done.

There are different types of neurons:

  • sensory neuron
  • motor neuron
  • adjustor neuron
  • relay neuron
  • afferent neuron
  • efferent neuron
  • inter neuron

They all have different structures but mostly contain the same parts. Each of them has different roles in the nervous system. 


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