Synaptic transmission is a biological process in which a particular neuron communicates or gets involved with a target cell over a synapse. This process involves a release of a neurotransmitter from the pre-synaptic neuron to a neurotransmitter that has started to bind with a specific postsynaptic receptor.
This process that is occurring at a particular synapse. And in this process, a chemical signal, also known as a transmitter, is released from one neuron to another and starts to diffuse from one neuron to another or even to target cells. There it starts to generate a signal which helps inhibit or modulate any cell's cellular activity.
The important information needed for the body is passed down to the neuron's axon as an electrical impulse. Once the action potential reaches the end of the axon, it again needs to be transferred to a different neuron or a tissue.
The process of synaptic transmission:
1. At first, the neuronal impulse travels down to the pre-synaptic axon to the bulb of the axon.
2.Then the synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane of the axon bulb, causing it to release neurotransmitters in the synapses.
3.The neurotransmitter is being released, and it goes into the synaptic cleft
4.Then the neurotransmitter binds to receptors found on the postsynaptic neuron in the synapses.
5.The sodium ion channels open; hence, the ions can enter the postsynaptic neuron.