what is the network?
In the information technology sector, computer networks are the backbone of communication. They can be used in a variety of ways and with various types of networks. A computer network is a group of computers that are connected to share information. Computer networks extend back to the 1960s, but they've gone a long way in the 50 years since then.
Through the sharing of information, computer networks are utilized to perform a wide range of functions.
Networks are used for many purposes, including:
Using email, video, instant messaging, and other technologies to communicate
Printers, scanners, and photocopiers can all be shared.
On remote systems, sharing software and operating programs
Providing network users with easy access to and maintenance of data
Types of Network
There are numerous sorts of networks, each of which can be utilized for various reasons and by a variety of people and organizations. Here are some of the different sorts of networks you could encounter:
LAN (Local Area Networks):
A local area network, sometimes known as a LAN, is a network that connects computers in a small region. This might happen in a classroom, an office, or even your own house.
PAN (Personal Area Networks):
A personal area network (PAN) is a network built on a person's workspace. Other devices are connected to the individual's device, which serves as the network's hub. Wireless personal area networks are also available.
HAN (Home Area Networks):
The devices in a home are connected via a home area network.
WAN (Wide Area Networks):
A vast area network is a regional network that spans a greater geographical area, usually more than a kilometer in radius.
Networks on Campus:
A campus network is a local area network (LAN) or a collection of connected LANs used by a government agency, institution, corporation, or similar organization. It is often a network that spans several buildings that are near together.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks):
Metropolitan area networks are a type of network that spans a metropolitan area's size. A MAN is a collection of connected LANs in a city that may or may not be connected to a WAN.
Private Networks for Businesses:
A company's enterprise private network connects its many locations so that resources can be shared among them.
Internetworks are a type of network that connects multiple networks to form a larger network. The term "internetworking" is frequently used to indicate the creation of an extensive, global network.
BBN (Backbone Networks):
A backbone is a component of a network that connects various features and offers a communication path.
GAN (Global Area Networks):
A global area network, such as the internet, is a worldwide network that connects networks all over the world.
The two most prevalent forms of computer networks are client/server networks and peer-to-peer networks. Client/server networks feature centralized storage servers that client PCs and devices can access. Devices that support the same functions are standard in peer-to-peer networks. They're more common in homes, whereas enterprises are more likely to employ client/server networks.
Network Connection Types
There are also other network connections, which refer to how network parts are connected. Computers are connected via topologies, with a collapsed ring being the most prevalent variety due to Ethernet's internet support.
Some topologies are used to create networks-
Topology of the Stars
In a star architecture, a central node connects each computer in the network using a cable. Each computer in the network has its link to the network's core, so if one connection fails, the remainder of the network is unaffected.
The fact that this form of network demands a massive number of wires is one downside.
Topology of Buses
In bus topology network connection, one cable connects the computer. Each connected machine must pass the information to the network's final node. There is less cabling required, but if the cable breaks, none of the devices will connect to the network.
Topology of Rings
The ring topology is similar to that of a bus. It uses a single cable with connected end nodes to allow the signal to circle throughout the network in pursuit of its intended receiver. Even if the network node is not functioning correctly, the signal will try numerous times to identify its destination. A hub, router, or switch serves as the core node in a collapsed ring. The gadget has an internal ring topology and cable plug-in points. Every computer on the network has a cable that connects to the device.
This always entails having a cabling closet with all PCs linked to it and a switch in an office.
The languages that computer devices use to communicate are known as network protocols. Computer networks' protocols provide yet another means of defining and categorizing them. Multiple protocols can be used in a network, each of which can support particular applications. TCP/IP, which is most commonly used on the internet and in-home networks, is one of the most widely used protocols.
Wired and Wireless Networks
Both wired and wireless networks can use a variety of protocols. Wireless technologies, on the other hand, have gained in popularity in recent years. Wi-Fi and other wireless technologies have supplanted wired networking as the preferred method of establishing computer networks. One reason for the increase is that wireless networks can readily handle a variety of wireless devices that have grown increasingly popular over time, such as smartphones and tablets. Because mobile networking isn't going away anytime soon, it's now a crucial factor to consider
Key Networking Terms
Open system: An available system is linked to the internet and ready to communicate.
Closed system: A closed system isn't connected to the internet and can't communicate with others.
IP (internet protocol) address: the system's network address (also known as the Logical Address) over the network.
Mac address: The MAC address, also known as the physical address, identifies each host. It's linked to the Network Interface Card (NIC) (NIC).
Port: A port is a channel that allows data to be transferred and received.
Nodes: A node is any computational equipment, such as a computer that sends and receives network packets across the network.
Network packets: Packets sent over the internet.
Router: Routers are hardware components that manage router traffic. They figure out where the data comes from and to whom it should be sent. A routing protocol specifies how a router connects with other routers.
NAT: Routers employ network address translation (NAT) to deliver internet service to more devices while using fewer public IP addresses. A router has a public IP address, but its devices have private IP addresses that are not visible to anybody outside the network.
DHCP: The internet service provider manages the dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP), assigning dynamic IP addresses to hosts.
ISP: Internet service providers (ISPs) are businesses that provide access to the internet.