We all know that the brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system. The CNS controls our entire body and all the functions done by it too. The spinal cord is directly connected to the brain and carries out many essential functions. It is covered with three thin layers of protective tissue known as membranes, and the vertebrae surround the spinal cord and the membranes. It is also protected by discs, ligaments, and other muscles. The spine itself is made up of 33 bones. It passes through a hole in each vertebra's center, known as the spinal canal. There are discs between these that act as cushions for the spine and protect it.
The vertebrae are a backbone that helps us stand or sit. Because of the backbone, we can freely bend our body the way we want, and it helps us in working or doing any other work. The spinal cord nerves in the bodies of organisms carry important messages between the brain and the rest of the body and vice versa when it is needed to move. These nerve signals help us feel sensations in our brain to move. The spinal cord connects our brain to the lower back part of our body.
The three primary functions of the spinal cord are motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. They all play an essential role individually in helping us move freely. The motor function directs the movements of our body's voluntary muscles. The sensory function mainly monitors any sensation of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain in our body. The autonomic function regulates digestion, urination, excretion, body temperature, heart rate, and dilation of blood vessels, blood pressure of the organisms.
The five regions that a spinal cord is divided into are: