Climate change is a casual phenomenon in today's world. As a result of this climate change, the earth's temperature is slowly rising, which is better known as global warming. In scientific terms, this is called the greenhouse effect. Due to the increase in global temperature, various types of disasters are increasing such as heavy rains, droughts, flash floods, droughts, tidal surges, cyclones, etc. As a result, the amount of loss of knowledge and property is increasing.
What is climate change?
Climate change refers to a long-term change in the usual climate conditions that have come to define Earth's local, territorial, and global ecosystems.
Climate change caused by global warming is having a devastating effect on the world's natural environment. As a result of these changes, sea surface warming is increasing and the seasonal continuity of the weather is being disrupted.
Climate change will impact negatively on all sectors, especially infrastructure, health, housing, agricultural production, the natural environment, all public welfare services, and food security, impeding long-term socio-economic growth.
Climate change and global warming
The word "global warming" refers to a steady rise in the surface temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which is thought to be permanently altering the planet's environment.
The combustion of fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, is the main cause of climate change. Agriculture and deforestation, for example, also lead to the emission of greenhouse gases that cause climate change.
In 2014, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) announced that researchers were more than 95% completely sure human activities, primarily increased concentrations of greenhouse gases including methane and carbon dioxide, were the primary cause of global warming.
Greenhouse gases are responsible for the greenhouse effect. Fossil fuel use and changes in land use, such as deforestation, are the two key human activities that impact CO2 sources and sinks.
The share of various greenhouse gases in the greenhouse effect is
Carbon dioxide 49%
Chloro fluorocarbon 14%
Nitrous oxide 6%
Green House Gas
According to the latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the global surface temperature is likely to rise another 0.3 to 1.7 degrees Celsius during the twenty-first century.
1.Causes of climate change
3. Burning coal
International initiatives on protection climate change:
Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC) formulated by leading scientists of the world in 1988.
Earth summit 1992: The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiate the earth summit in Rio De Janerio from 3 to 14 June 1992
Kyoto Protocol: The Kyoto protocol was signed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 to reduce
· Carbon dioxide
· Other greenhouse gas
· With 191 states + UN
· The first commitment period applies to emission between 2008-2012
· Second commitment period applies to emission between 2015-2020
Conference of Parties (COP): The parties to the convention (Earth Summit) have met annually since 1995 in conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
Paris Agreement: COP-21, Time: 30 November -12 December, 2015
Outcomes of the Paris Agreement:
· The agreement established a global warming goal of well below 2o C on pre-industrial averages.
· The Paris agreement defines “Strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change” [Art -2]
· The Paris Agreement depends on voluntary mitigation contributions.
· To rise responsibilities among the parties
· Dialogue among the parties
· Immediate response to the challenge recognizes in the Paris Agreement.
COP -23(BONN 2017)
Time: 6-18 November 17
Took Promised to be a somewhat technical affair
Continue to negotiate the finer details of how the agreement will work.
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues of the twenty-first century, necessitating a prominent position in foreign policy. A stronger position for foreign policy in international climate policy, specifically through climate diplomacy, has been called for in light of the slow pace of progress in international climate negotiations.
Many people are becoming climate refugees as a result of ongoing natural disasters, and they are losing their livelihoods and sources of income. As a result, developing countries should accept and recruit these climate refugee to reduce their losses and damages.
Adaptation and Mitigation:
To meet the recent challenges posed by climate change, adaptation and mitigation efforts are needed. Other ministries and departments' operations will have a direct and indirect effect on climate change. As a consequence, to ensure a stable and sustainable climate, an integrated strategy must be prepared by the Ministry of Environment's policies, strategies, and programs, as well as those of other related ministries.
To address the challenges of climate change, we must ensure food and water availability, protect infrastructure, and mitigate disaster risk. The steps that can be taken to combat climate change are as follows.
Agriculture Adaptation: We must follow
· Improve irrigation systems;
· Cultivate adaptive crops
· Applied modern agricultural technology;
· Integrated wetland farming;
· Improved fish farming; 6. Improved mangrove and island plantations
· Improve crop production technology focused on agroecosystems.
Water security adaptation:
· Existing irrigation systems must be modernized;
· A higher water demand control system must be tackled.
Adaptation for Ecosystems and Biodiversity:
· Afforestation and reforestation 2.
· Sustainable and alternative livelihoods for ecosystems
· 3. Human activities that are dependent on biodiversity
· The coastal green belt initiative should be revisited.
· The public health system must be improved.
· Proper climate change education is needed.
· To minimize carbon emissions, proper training is needed.
· Public health awareness programs must be stepped up.
· Raise awareness about diseases that are affected by climate change.
Fisheries and Livestock Adaptation:
· Aquaculture requires the development of salt-tolerant fish species.
· It is essential to incorporate mechanized fishing technologies.
· Fuel-efficient cars and transportation systems should be introduced.
· Solid waste disposal
· Waste incineration
· Organic waste composting
· Minimization of waste
· Methane gas reduction