Data Transmission Method and Medium

Published on 29-Jun-2022

Data transmission method

Data is sent between digital devices using one of two methods: serial transmission or parallel transmission.

Data bits are sent one after the other across a single channel in serial data transfer. Parallel data transmission delivers numerous data bits through several channels at the same time.

  • Serial communication is the process of delivering data one bit at a time, consecutively via a communication channel or computer bus in telecommunication and data transmission. On the other hand, parallel communication sends multiple bits as a single unit over a network among many channels.
  • In parallel transmission, multiple bits are sent from one computer to another at the same time. When it comes to transmitting bits, parallel transmission is quicker than serial transmission. For short distances, parallel transmission is employed.

The Data Transmission mode defines the data transmission mode's direction of information flow between two communication devices. It's also known as Directional Mode / Data Communication. It describes the direction of information flow in a computer network from one point to another.

Modes of Transmission.

Simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex are the three modes of transmission.

  • The communication between the sender and the receiver occurs only in one way in a simplex transmission mode. That implies that the sender can only be transmitted, and the recipient can only receive the data.
  • In half-duplex transmission, communication between sender and receiver occurs one at a time in both directions. The transmitter and receiver both can send and receive data, but only one of them can do so at a time.
  • In a full-duplex transmission mode, the sender and receiver can communicate at the same time. Both the sender and the receiver can communicate and receive data at the same time.

Media of Data Communication

The means of sending and receiving data or information are referred to as communication mediums. These instruments or channels for data storage and transmission are known as transmission and storage tools or channels in telecommunication.

most commonly used data communication media :

  • Wire pairs
  • Coaxial cable
  • Microwave transmission
  • Communication satellites
  • Fiber optics
  1. Wire pairs 

The standard copper cable that links residential and business computers to the telephone provider is twisted pair. Twice insulated copper wires are wrapped around each other to decrease crosstalk or electromagnetic induction between pair wires.

A circuit is made up of two wires that may transport data. The pairs are twisted to prevent crosstalk, which is a noise produced by neighboring pairs. A small, circular magnetic field is created around a wire as an electrical current runs through it.

2. Co-axial cable

Cable operators, telephone companies, and internet providers utilize coaxial cable to deliver data, video, and voice communications to consumers worldwide. It's also been widely utilized in private residences.

There are almost 50 different coaxial cable standards developed for specialized applications such as amateur radio or low-loss cable television. Exemplars are RG-59/U, which transports broadband signals from closed-circuit TV systems, and RG-214/U, which transmits high-frequency signals.

The common types of coaxial cable:

  • Hardline coaxial cable.
  • Flexible coaxial cable.
  • Semi-rigid coaxial cable.
  • Formable coaxial cable.
  • Rigid coaxial cable.
  • Twin axial cable.
  • Triaxial cable.

3. Twisted pair cable

In twisted pair cable, several pairs of cables are twisted together through which the data signal flows. Such cables are commonly used for telecommunications.

When copper is near one of the other, the signal of one affects the signal of the other, which is called crosstalk. The wires are twisted to reduce crosstalk and other interferences. When the wire is twisted, the signal of one neutralizes the signal of the other.

Color coding is used in twisted pairs, and each wire has insulation or covering. These covered wires are twisted or twisted. The wires are wrapped in a plastic jacket to protect them.

Two types of twisted pair cable:

  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

What is the difference between twisted pair cable and coaxial cable?

Twisted Pair Cable is mainly used in phone networks and cable shielding. The following are the differences between Coaxial Cable and Twisted.

Pair Cable: Signals are sent through the cable's inner conductor in coaxial cable: Signals are sent via metallic conducting wire in pair cable.

4. Optical fiber

Optical fiber is a skinny glass fiber that is as thin and flexible as human hair. Optical fiber transmits a piece of information or data through light, where the light signal is decoded as data. As a result, fiber optics is a transmission medium that functions as a "pipe" for transmitting signals across vast distances at excessively high rates.


Optical fiber has a core surrounded by a capping layer made of dielectric material. Optical signals within the core are limited by placing a reflective indicator that is higher than the cladding. Fiber optical applies the internal reflection of light. The fibers are designed to help propagate light with optical fibers depending on the electrical requirements and transmission distance.

Optical fiber was created for endoscopes in the 1950s to be used in medical science. Engineers found a way to use the same technology to transmit telephone calls at the speed of light.


5. Wireless

TV remote controls, radios, and GPS systems are all examples of wireless gadgets. Phones, tablets, Bluetooth mice and keyboards, wireless routers, and most other devices that don't utilize cables to transfer information are examples of wireless gadgets. Another form of a wireless gadget is a wireless charger.

Wireless networks are divided into three categories: WAN, LAN, and PAN. WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network): Mobile phone signals are used to construct WWANs, generally provided and managed by specialized mobile phone (cellular) service providers.

You may be acquainted with some of these terms: radio and television broadcasting, radar communication, cellular communication, global positioning systems (GPS), wi-fi, Bluetooth, and radio frequency identification are all instances of "wireless," with drastically diverse applications in some cases.

6. Microwave

The vibrations caused by microwaves force water and fat molecules to vibrate, making the substances heated. Microwaves are used in mobile phones because they can be created by a small antenna, allowing them to be small. Microwaves are also used in wi-fi.

  • Long-distance wireless transmission is a term used to describe data transmission over a long distance Microwave technology is used in most wireless transmission systems.
  • Satellite communication.
  • Cell phone communication.
  • Wi-fi.
  • Global Positioning System (GPS).
  • Radar
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Bluetooth.

7. Terrestrial microwave

Terrestrial microwave is a wireless microwave networking technique that relays data between pairs of Earth-based transmitters and receivers using line-of-sight communications.

Microwave radio transmission is widely used in terrestrial point-to-point communication networks and satellite and deep-space radio communications. Radars, radio navigation systems, sensor systems, and radio astronomy employ other areas of the microwave radio range.

ü Advantage:

Ability to send large amounts of data.

ü Costs are pretty low, which is an advantage.

ü Solid Objects are a disadvantage.

ü Electromagnetic and other interference are a disadvantage.

 9. Satellite Microwave 

A microwave transmission system that sends and relays signals between sender and recipient using geosynchronous satellites. The majority of enterprises that employ satellite microwaves pay an excessive premium for access to the satellites. Computer networking is a category.

           Here is a list of some of the significant benefits of satellite communication:

  • The satellite transmission has ample region coverage.
  • Because of the high volume of intercontinental travel, satellite commercials are appealing.
  • Satellites can cover enormous portions of the globe. It is especially beneficial in sparsely inhabited areas.

The following is a list of some of the most significant disadvantages of satellite communication:

  • Overcrowding of available bandwidths due to low antenna gains due to technological limitations limiting the deployment of large, high gain antennas on the satellite platform
  • The high insurance investment cost is connected with a greater probability of failure.
  • High atmospheric losses limit carrier frequencies above 30 GHz.

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