It is basically the study of relationships between organisms and the environment surrounding them. It also considers the equilibrium between these relationships.
There are different types of ecology:
- Population ecology
- Community ecology
- Global ecology
- Landscape ecology
- Ecosystem ecology and others.
There are two types of factor in ecology – biotic and abiotic. The living and non-living elements, as well as their interactions with the environment, are included in the biotic and abiotic variables.
Biotic factors are living factors of an ecosystem.
Abiotic factors are non-living components of the ecosystem.
Global ecology: It is mainly about interaction among earth’s land , ecosystem, atmosphere and oceans. It helps to understand their influence on planet.
Landscape ecology: Landscape ecology is about role of human impacts on landscape features. It deals with materials exchange and exchange of energy in the ecosystem.
Ecosystem ecology: It includes the factors of entire ecosystem including living and non-living things and their relation with the environment.
Community ecology: It deals with how the community is affected by interactions between living organisms.
Population ecology: It is about how the genetic composition and size of the population is altered. It examines the population density and distribution.
Ecology is very important. It has importance in the conservation of environment. It has importance in energy conservation and it also has importance in resource allocation.