The biochemical components in a cell
A cell is a structural and functional unit of any living organism. All the elements of life are made and stored in the cells. The plant bodies are generally composed of various inorganic and organic materials. All the plant species out there require many chemicals to form and sustain life. Many of them are created in the tissues inside the bodies of organisms. One of the parts of science in which cells are described, studied, and researched is called biochemistry.
When analyzing the living body of a plant, the main element found in it is water. About 60-90% of the body's protoplasm is water. The remaining part of the plant is called solid matter. The 17 elements are C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca Mg, Fe, Na, Cl, Mn, B, S, Mo, Cu, and Zn which combine to form numerous organic elements. Among all the biochemical substances, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, other organic acids, various enzymes, etc., water is one of the only inorganic substances. Generally, dairy foods, fish, meat, eggs, pulses, grains, vegetables, fruits, etc., contain large amounts of inorganic or mineral salts.
All living things are made of different matters. Different matters are made up of different chemical elements. The substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other simpler substance is known as a chemical element.
There are 92 essential elements in our lives. Out of the 92 elements, 96% of living organisms are able to survive because of these elements: O2, C, H2, and N2. The other elements, such as Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, and Mg, are also in small amounts.
The smallest part of an element that can retain its properties is an atom. The building blocks of this material world are the atoms. At the center of an atom, there is a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons in it. The protons have a positive charge (+), whereas the neutrons have no charge, which means 0. Some electrons surround the nucleus in the shells, which have a negative charge (-).
Compound: when two or more elements are combined in a specific ratio, such as 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O. For example, H2 and O2 are combined in a specific ratio to form a water compound. Atoms of a compound are chemically bonded together using chemical bonds.
Chemical bond: Chemical bonds are generally of three types, and the names are: Ionic bonds, Covalent bonds, or Hydrogen bonds.
Ionic bond: Ionic bond is always between two atoms. In this bonding, one or more than one electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom to start the ionic bonding. The first atom becomes positively charged by losing an electron, and the other atom gains an electron and becomes a negatively charged ion. An atom's charged (+ or –) state is called an ion. Ions with positive (+) and negative (-) charge strongly attract each other resulting in the formation of ionic bonds.
Covalent bond: A covalent bond is formed when electrons are shared between two atoms, which creates a covalent bond between two atoms. Nonpolar covalent bonds are formed when electrons are shared equally between two atoms. Polar covalent bonds are formed when electrons are shared unequally between two atoms.
Hydrogen bond: The bond formed due to the attraction force between the positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule and the negatively charged atom of another molecule is known as the hydrogen bond.
Peptide bond: A Peptide bond is formed between two amino acids. It is a covalent bond.
Glycosidic bond: The bond between monosaccharides is known as the glycosidic bond.
Organic molecule: Most of the compounds existing in organisms consist of a structure of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms. Sometimes there can be some other elements as well. Such molecules are known as biomolecules. It is a molecule that does not contain any hydrocarbon atoms and is an inorganic compound.
A reactive group of a biomolecule is called a Functional Group. A functional group is usually ionic or polar.