The process of biotechnology is a modern and applied branch of biology. The term biotechnology was first discovered in the year of 1919 by the Hungarian agricultural engineer Karl Ereky. The word Biotechnology is a combination of two different words, 'Biology' and 'Technology.' The development of the current world depends on both science and technology. It is also said that this is the age of science andtechnology.
A country that is advanced in science and technology is also advanced in the economy, communication, and energy. But not all type of technology is biotechnology. Making bricks from clay is also a type of technology. Extracting oil and gas from deep in the ground is also technology-dependent. Instant communication around the world, various uses of mobile phones, etc., depend on technology, but these are not biotechnology.
It is a simple process of biotechnology by which we can produce good quality yogurt by selecting good bacterial strains. Alcohol production is also a form of biotechnology, and these are the oldest biotechnologies. Biogas is produced by the process of biotechnology that uses bacteria to produce biogas from decomposing biomass.
Modern biotechnology is the technology or method of producing thousands of seedlings from small pieces of dividing tissue in the laboratory at once. After the invention of recombinant DNA technology, i.e., genetic engineering, in the 1970s, the process of biotechnology gained a new dimension.
Scope of Biotechnology
The scope of biotechnology is ever widening, which means it is ever expanding. It seems that future advances in biology and civilization will depend on biotechnology, and the next day will be the era of biotechnology. Nowadays, the following terms are used to describe the scope of biotechnology.
(i) Blue Biotechnology: It describes aquatic and marine applications of the process of biotechnology.
(ii) Green Biotechnology: It describes the agricultural application of biotechnology.
(iii) Red & White Biotechnology: It describes the the medical field of biotechnology.
Branches of biotechnology
What is biotechnology?
According to Coleman (1968), biotechnology is the technology applied to produce new plants, animals, microorganisms, or products with improved properties useful for the welfare of humanity using living plants, animals, microorganisms, or their parts. Some more definitions of biotechnology are:
- Biotechnology is the art of technological use of organisms for human welfare and betterment.
- Biotechnology is the production of essential goods and services using biological materials through scientific and strategic principles for all human beings, plants, and animals.
- Biotechnology is the controlled use of biological agents, such as microorganisms or cellular products, for human welfare and other living organisms.