Genetic engineering is a newer and more applied branch of biology, and its main aim is to create new varieties of superior quality by transferring any desired gene. Genetic engineering or gene engineering is taking a specific gene from an organism and placing it in another organism or changing the DNA of an organism to create new characteristics.
Genetic engineering has made it possible to transfer desired segments of DNA molecules from bacteria to humans, from plants to animals, and from animals to plants. Such organisms are called GMOs (Genetically Modified Organism) or GEOs (Genetically Engineered Organism), or Transgenics (TO = Transgenic Organism). By introducing human insulin-producing genes into bacteria (E. coli), it is now possible to produce insulin with those bacteria. In 1951 science fiction writer Jack Williamson first used the term genetic engineering in his famous book Dragon's Island.
The new DNA produced by cutting the desired DNA part from the cell of an organism with the help of restriction enzymes and connecting it with the DNA of the cell of another organism is called Recombinant DNA. The method or technology used for genetic engineering is called recombinant DNA technology. A brief description of this is presented below.