Genome Sequencing : Basics, Stages and Methods

Published on 11-Oct-2022

Genome Sequencing

The process of genome sequencing is very important in modern biotechnology. All organisms have a fixed number of chromosomes. Those chromosomes are usually of different structures or types. A set of chromosomes in a nucleus of a species is usually called the genome. A haploid nucleus contains one genome, whereas a diploid nucleus contains two genomes. All human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair of 23 chromosomes together make up the entire human genome. That is why all human cells have a pair of genomes. In the year 2020, a famous French scientist Emmanuel Carpenter and an American scientist Jennifer received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Running the technology for discovering genome editing methods is called Trisper Cass Nile Genetic Scissors. It is a different way to make specific and concise changes in the D.N.A. of all the living cells if it is required.

D.N.A. is the main component of chromosomes and parts of D.N.A. that act as genes. So, it can be said that the complete D.N.A. is the genome with all the genes located in one set of chromosomes in an organism. The collection of genes in an organism is collectively called the genome, and that organism's genome is called the organism's ''master blueprint''. We know that numerous nucleotides are arranged in different arrangements to form a D.N.A. molecule. A sugar, a molecule of a nitrogenous base (adenine = A, guanine = G, thymine = T, and cytosine = C), and a molecule of phosphate join together to form a single nucleotide. The order in which the A.T.G.C. bases are arranged along the length of the D.N.A. molecule is the genome sequence, and uncovering this sequence or arrangement is called genome sequencing or D.N.A. sequencing. A process in which the sequence of base pairs in D.N.A. strands is determined is known as D.N.A. sequencing.

Genome sequencing requires advanced technology and expensive equipment. D.N.A. molecules are cut at appropriate distances, and the fragments are sequenced together. The costs of this process have come down significantly, whereas it was very expensive before due to the absence of technology. The originator of genome sequencing is Dr. F. Sanger, who later received the Nobel Prize for this work. 

The process of genome sequencing is very important, and the stages are:

(i) Initially separate the specific D.N.A. molecules into four reagent-rich test tubes, where the reaction will detect A.T.G.C. residues in each D.N.A. fragment. 

(ii) Each of the four reactions is separated by gel electrophoresis, and the sequence is determined from the location and size of the radioactive bands. 

(iii) The results of electrophoresis are analyzed and interpreted using a computer-controlled X-ray scanner.

Unveiling the secret of jute's life or genome sequencing: Bangladeshi scientist Dr. Maqsudul Alam and all his colleagues have uncovered the secret of jute'sjute's life by sequencing the genome of Tosha jute (Corchorus olitorius).

This is also a part of biotechnology that has helped a lot to unveil the secret. One hundred twenty crores of base pairs of jute.

The order in which they are arranged is known. Scientists believe that genome sequencing will now enable the development of fine fiber jute, winter part, easily decomposable part, insect repellent jute, medicinal jute, strong fiber jute-like cotton, etc. A few days ago, Dr. Maksudul Alam passed away.

The process of genome sequencing of crop disease viruses: 

Mudgal is one of the pulse-producing plants in Bangladesh. But the yield of this crop is significantly reduced due to the attack of the yellow mosaic virus. Therefore, a professor at the Botany Department of Dhaka University.

Muhammad Nurul Islam and their research colleagues have sequenced the genome of yellow disease-causing viruses in Bangladesh. They are researching the development of yellow mosaic virus-resistant varieties using RNAi methods. With the financial support of I.C.G.E.B., his team developed tomato leaf grafting (Tomato leaf curl) and completed the genome sequencing of the disease-causing T.O.L.C.V. virus.

Currently, more research is being carried out to develop tomato varieties resistant to ToLCV. Scientists from Bangladesh Science and Industry Research Institute (B.C.S.I.R.) and several other institutions have sequenced the genome of the novel coronavirus.

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