Amino acid : Formula, Structure, Functions

Published on 28-Sep-2022

Amino acids

Amino acids are organic molecules that act as building blocks of proteins. Nobel Prize-winning scientists Emil Fischer and Franz Hofmeister discovered amino acids as the building blocks of protein molecules in 1902. An organic acid formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of an organic acid with an amino group (-NH2) is called an amino acid.

Each amino acid contains at least one amino group (NH) and one carboxyl group (-COOH). It may also have other active functional groups. So, an amino acid's properties depend on the functional group. There are different types of amino acids in plants. Twenty amino acids are combined and arranged in various ways to form other proteins.

The general structure of amino acids that make up proteins: The carbon atom near the carboxyl group of an amino acid is called the CL-carbon, and when the carboxyl group is attached to the C-carbon, it is called the -amino acid.

Chemical structure of amino acids:

The common chemical symbol of amino acids is R - CH. NH2. COOH. Here R is a hydrogen atom or an organic compound containing carbon. Amino acids contain at least one amino group (-NH2), one carboxyl group (-COOH), and one contains a side chain group (R).

Amino acid formula

 

However, some amino acids may contain 2 amino groups or 2 carboxyl groups, or sulfur. In nature, the most R group is glycine, and amino acids are -amino acids.

If the R-group is CH2OH, the amino acid is serine. 1 Amino acid cysteine if the R-group is CH.SH.

Non polar amino acid structure

 

Properties of Amino Acids

  • They all are soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol.
  • They are tasteless, sweet, or bitter substances.
  • They are colorless, crystalline substances.
  • Amino acids form salts with mild acids or bases in general.
  • Pure protein is treated with a chemical substance or enzyme.
  • Amino acids are obtained by complete hydrolysis (wet-analysis) with this.
  • One or more types of amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds to form proteins.
  • Acidic and basic amino acid groups are called Zuitter ions.

Amino acid alphabetically

Serial

Amino Acid

Chemical formula

Molecular weight

3-letter abbreviation

1-letter abbreviation

1

Alanine

C3H7NO2

89.09 g/mol

Ala

A

2

Arginine

C6H14N4O2

174.2 g/mol

Arg

R

3

Asparagine

C4H8N2O3

132.12 g/mol

Asn

N

4

Aspartic acid

C4H7NO4

133.11 g/mol

Asp

D

5

Cysteine

C3H7NO2S

121.16 g/mol

Cys

C

6

Glutamic acid

C5H9NO4

147.13 g/mol

Glu

E

7

Glutamine

C5H10N2O3

146.14 g/mol

Gln

Q

8

Glycine

C2H5NO2

75.07 g/mol

Gly

G

9

Histidine

C6H9N3O2

155.157 g/mol

His

H

10

Isoleucine

C6H13NO2

131.17 g/mol

Ile

I

11

Leucine

C6H13NO2

131.17 g/mol

Leu

L

12

Lysine

C6H14N2O2

146.19 g/mol

Lys

K

13

Methionine

C5H11NO2S

149.21 g/mol

Met

M

14

Phenylalanine

C9H11NO2

165.19 g/mol

Phe

F

15

Proline

C5H9NO2

115.13 g/mol

Pro

P

16

Serine

C3H7NO3

105.09 g/mol

Ser

S

17

Threonine

C4H9NO3

119.1192 g/mol

Thr

T

18

Tryptophan

C11H12N2O2

204.23 g/mol

Trp

W

19

Tyrosine

C9H11NO3

181.19 g/mol

Tyr

Y

20

Valine

C5H11NO2

117.151 g/mol

Val

V

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Short Facts about amino acid and protein

  1. A bond formed between two atoms is an ionic bond. Atoms that lose electrons become positively charged. Atoms that accept electrons are negatively charged.
  2. An atom's charge (+/-) state is called an ion. Plants absorb mineral salts as ions.
  3. The intermolecular attraction between two molecules is called a hydrogen bond.
  4. Organic molecules are molecules with a structure of carbon atoms.
  5. The molecular chain of amylose is unbranched, but the molecular chain of amylopectin is branched.
  6. Glycogen is a nutritional polysaccharide that is the main stored food of the animal body, also known as animal starch.
  7. Amino acids are organic molecules that act as the building blocks of proteins. An acid formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of an organic acid with an amino (-NH2) group is called an amino acid.
  8. Each amino acid contains at least one amino group (-NH2) and one carboxyl group (-COOH).
  9. 20 amino acids make up one protein.
  10. There are 8 essential amino acids for children that keep them healthy.
  11. Biochemical substances of macromolecules composed of numerous amino acids are proteins or carbohydrates.
  12. About 50% of the dry weight of an organism is protein.
  13. All enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes.
  14. The ideal protein is found in eggs and milk, so eggs and milk are known as ideal foods and essential for our diet.
  15. Animal protein is more useful than vegetable protein for the human body.
  16. Esters of glycerol and fatty acids are called lipids. Oils and fats are examples of lipids.
  17. Linoleic and linolenic are called essential fatty acids.
  18. A fatty acid with a double bond at the 3rd carbon after CH; is called an omega-3 fatty acid, and a double bond at the 6th carbon is called an omega-6 fatty acid.
  19. Lipids consisting of carbon side chains on the backbone of four carbon rings are steroids, and cholesterol is a steroid.
  20. Enzymes are proteins, biochemical substances in small amounts in organisms that speed up the rate of various reactions but remain unchanged at the end.
  21. Zymase enzyme was discovered from yeast cells in 1897.
  22. If the prosthetic group of an enzyme is a biochemical substance, it is called a co-enzyme.
  23. Trypsin enzyme is used in cataract surgery in hospitals.
  24. Sections of the DNA molecule are cut with restriction enzymes, and the cut DNA fragments are joined together with ligase enzymes.

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