Plant Tissue Culture : Definition, Techniques and Application

Published on 04-Oct-2022

Plant tissue culture 

Tissue culture is the process of growing a tissue isolated from any divisible part of a plant (e.g., shoot, bud, young leaf, or petal) in a sterile medium with appropriate nutrients and producing a full-fledged plant. To culture, a tissue in the laboratory with nutrients is tissue culture. Many people have had such ideas since long ago.

An American biologist Morgan (1901), was the first to postulate that every living plant cell has the inherent capacity to develop into a complete plant. He called this ability totipotency, and since the whole plant is produced by using small parts in this process, it is called micropropagation. Again, in this process, a plant's identical generation or clone is created.

It is also called cloning technology, where explants separated from the mother plant for tissue culture purposes are called explants. New seedlings produced by the tissue culture method are called plantlets. German botanist Gottlieb Haberlandt (1902) is called the father of tissue culture.

Because he was the first to develop the tissue culture method, and this method is also called in-vitro culture. Because this process is done inside the glass. In the 1930s, the French scientist Gautheret (1939), the American scientist White (1939), and another French scientist Nobercourt (1939), were able to cultivate different plant tissues for a long time through specific nutrients. 

Although tissue culture is a new branch of biotechnology, great success has already been achieved through this technology in the field of plant breeding, production of improved plant varieties, and human development. Various plants are currently being researched, and these results are being used for human welfare. As a result, tissue culture technology has made a remarkable contribution to the country's economy.

Tissue Culture Laboratory is a self-contained laboratory for basic procedures of tissue culture, and they are:

(i) General operations (e.g., preparation of medium, cleaning of collected plant parts, autoclaving, etc.) are carried out in one. 

(ii) Inoculation chamber with laminar air flow in one, where cultured parts are introduced into the culture vessel in a sterile environment. 

(iii) One is a culture chamber, where temperature, humidity, light intensity, etc., are controlled. Culture vessels are kept in this controlled environment, from which the growth and development of the cultured plants are monitored at regular intervals. And lastly, the data is recorded after monitoring.


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