Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) can cause stroke or heart attack by clotting blood in human blood vessels. So, if the clotted blood can be dissolved immediately, the patient will be cured. In the year of 1970, the streptokinase enzyme was first obtained from bacterial cells to dissolve blood clots. But this protein is not human protein, so it causes many side effects in the body.
Human blood already has plasmin enzyme (Plasmin enzyme), which exists in the state of Plasminogen and is inactive. TPA is required to activate plasminogen.
TPA manufacturing process
(i) Isolation of TPA gene mRNA from human cells.
(ii) Making DNA from mRNA.
(iii) Generating recombinant DNA by incorporating the DNA into a suitable plasmid.
(iv) Introduction of recombinant DNA into E. coli bacteria.
(v) Cultivating E. coli with recombinant DNA in a culture medium to make thousands of copies (cloning). (vi) Isolation of TPA protein from E. coli for preparation as medicine.
(vii) Injecting TPA into the blood vessel of a heart attack or stroke patient dissolves the blood block, and the patient recovers. (viii) Since TPA secreting gene is taken from the human body, it has no side effects.